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Geology - Introduction

Geology 101 - Gale Martin - Class Notes


This Physical Geology class covers three general areas

--Rock classification and a brief description of the processes necessary to form rock.

--Denudation processes: including fluvial, glacial, eolian, mass wasting and groundwater processes.

--Tectonic processes: including earthquakes, orogenies, plate tectonics and the structures created by these processes.

Rock Classification

There are three categories for rock classification:

--Igneous: created through solidification of magma.

--Sedimentary: formed by accumulation of sediment or crystallization of minerals from solutions, such as water.

--Metamorphic: formed from increases in temperatures, pressures and chemical means while the rock remains in a solid state.

Individual rocks are formed by various geologic events. Different processes, such as volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, or wind storms, will produce a unique rock type. The "history" of the development of each rock is preserved in the rock's texture and composition and referred to as the rock's facies.

The goal of this course is to review rock textures and compositions and learn basic concepts of the processes to enable students to understand the origins of rocks and the earth's geology.

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